These setup steps only need to be performed on a particular machine once. Note: Developers using Linux workstations can skip over the references to Cygwin. If using Windows, install cygwin, including Utils/gnupg and Net/openssh packages.

Create and install a SSH key

  1. Open a shell window. If using Windows, open a cygwin window.
  2. Use ssh-keygen to create an SSH key. Note: Follow the latest steps and guides on the ASF website at as you need to disable using SHA1 and new keys should be 4096 bits.

    ssh-keygen -t dsa -b 4096

    Program defaults should be fine. No passphrase is required for the ssh key generation. The keys will be saved in ~/.ssh/id_dsa (private) and ~/.ssh/ (public).

    See Authenticating By Public Key (OpenSSH) for a good description on why and how to perform this task.

  3. scpl your SSH public key ~/.ssh/ created in last step to ~/ on

    cd ~/.ssh
    scp <your userid>

    You will be prompted for your password.

  4. Use ssh to log into

    cd ~
    ssh <your userid>

    At this point, you will still be prompted for your password.

  5. Create a .ssh folder in your home directory (~) on and change its file mode to 700 (owner read/write/execute, no permissions granted to anyone else):

    mkdir ~/.ssh
    chmod 700 ~/.ssh
  6. Move or append ~/ to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys and change its file mode to 600 (owner read/write, no permissions granted to anyone else):

    mv ~/ ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
    chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

    Each public key in the authorized_keys file spans only one line, e.g.:

    ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAA ..... agBmmfZ9uAbSqA==dsa-key-20071107

    (any line with '#' in the first column is a comment line)

  7. Exit out of this ssh session.

  8. Start a new ssh session. No login should be required this time due to the private key on your local box matching up with the public key in your home directory (~/.ssh):

    ssh ${USER}

    If you are still prompted for a password, then you have not set up the keys properly. Review the steps above and ensure that all of the steps were followed properly. Or, maybe the instructions are still not quite right and they still need some adjusting. In that case, please update the instructions accordingly. :-)

Create a GPG key

  1. Open a shell window. If using Windows, open a cygwin window.
  2. Generate a key-pair with gpg, using default key kind ("DSA and Elgamal") and ELG-E keys size (2048).

    gpg --gen-key

    The program's default values should be fine. For the "Real Name" enter your full name (ie. Stan Programmer). For the "e-mail address" enter your apache address (ie. You will also be required to enter a "passphrase" for the GPG key generation. Keep track of this as you will need this for the Release processing.

    The generated keys are stored in $HOME/.gnupg or %HOME%\Application Data\gnupg directory. Save the content in this directory to a safe medium. This contains your private key used to sign all the BVal release materials.

  3. Back up your cygwin home directory to some other medium.

  4. Add your public key to and See the commands described at the beginning of this KEYS file to perform this task. The gpg key-pair is used to sign the published artifacts for the BVAL releases.

    gpg --list-sigs <Real Name> && gpg --armor -- export <Real Name>

    The file is updated via normal svn commit procedures. The one at must be manually updated from svn.

  5. Submit your public key to a key server, e.g. or

  6. Following the instructions in and ask multiple (at least 3) current Apache committers to sign your public key.

Update Maven settings for our servers

Create a settings.xml under .m2:

<settings xmlns=""
    <!-- SCP settings for -->
      <!-- following is only for Windows only
    <!-- ASF Nexus settings -->